Use of Pesticides by Type and Year

Use of Pesticides by Type and Year

Postby fwiggins » Tue Jun 07, 2011 1:16 pm

A pesticide is any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying or controlling any pest, including vectors of human or animal disease, unwanted species of plants or animals causing harm during or otherwise interfering with the production, processing, storage, transport or marketing of food, agricultural commodities, wood and wood products or animal feedstuffs, or substances which may be administered to animals for the control of insects, arachnids or other pests in or on their bodies. The term pesticide also includes substances intended for use as a plant growth regulator, defoliant, desiccant (agent for thinning fruit or preventing the premature fall of fruit), and substances applied to crops either before or after harvest to protect the commodity from deterioration during storage and transport.

Use of pesticides by type and year refers to the type and quantity of pesticides used in (or sold to) the agricultural sector.

Types of Pesticides

Insecticides are agents of chemical or biological origin that control insects. Control may result from killing the insect or otherwise preventing it from engaging in behaviours deemed destructive. Insecticides may be natural or manmade and include chlorinated hydrocarbons, organo-phosphates, carbonates-insecticides, pyrethroids, and botanical and biological products. Examples include Chlordane and DDT.

Herbicides are used to kill unwanted plants. Selective herbicides kill specific targets while leaving the desired crop relatively unharmed. Some selective herbicides act by interfering with the growth of the weed and are often based on plant hormones. Nonselective herbicides, on the other hand, kill all plant material with which they come into contact. Herbicides include phenoxy hormone products, triazines, amides, carbonates-herbicides, dinitroanilines, urea derivates, sulfonyl urea, bipiridils and uracil.

Fungicides are chemical compounds used to prevent the spread of fungi or plants in gardens and crops, which can cause serious damage resulting in loss of yield and thus profit. Fungicides can either be contact or systemic. A contact fungicide kills fungi when sprayed on its surface; a systemic fungicide has to be absorbed by the plant.

Bactericides destroy, suppress or prevent the spread of bacteria. Examples are swimming pool chemicals containing chlorine, and products used to control black spot (bacterial blight) on garden plants or in orchards. Disinfectants for household and industrial use are excluded and are not considered pesticides

Seed treatments are chemical or biological substances or physical processes applied to seeds or seedlings. They help to protect the seeds and assure optimum emergence of the plant or crop. Application of a chemical to seeds is a very well-targeted method of reducing pest and disease attacks on the growing plant.

Plant growth regulators are substances or mixture of substances intended, through physiological action, to accelerate or retard the rate of growth or maturation, or otherwise alter the behavior of plants or their produce. Additionally, plant regulators are characterized by their low rates of application (high application rates of the same compounds often are considered herbicidal).

Rodenticides are pesticides used specifically for controlling rodents, such as mice and rats, and include anti-coagulants.

Other refers to pesticides not so far mentioned.

Source: FAO
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